Amaranthaceae commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower English is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniaetwo Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureusa filamentus yeast-like fungus Candida achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities and a free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone aq. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. Throughout the history of traditional medical systems, plants have always been used as ingredients in most of the treatment therapies.
Plants synthesize many diverse chemical molecules which, although perceived as waste and detoxification products or expression of shunt and overflow metabolism, continue to benefit humankind Ncube and Van Staden, The use of plants in traditional health care systems is thus rooted on the exploitation of this biogenic pool of metabolites.
Although, traditional medicinal systems hinges on human cultures, their persistence is, however, rooted on the ability of individuals to rite aid and eye drops from and copy each other through cultural transmission Cavalli-Sforza et al. The evolutionary success of these cultural traits derives this credit from their constant and cumulative natural selection over generations, an attribute that allows waves of innovations and trait modifications to become continuously assimilated Tennie et al.
Ethnopharmacology, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities serves as a multidisciplinary approach and field of inquiry that investigate the anthropological rationale and pharmacological basis of the medicinal plants used by diverse human cultures.
The ethnopharmacological approaches have provided major innovations and breakthroughs toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional medicine and its accelerated integration into mainstream medicine.
Irrespective of what the different reasons are for using it, there is no doubt a significant portion which rely on or choose it consciously as an alternative to mainstream medicine, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities. In addition to its heterogeneity and holistic approach to wii and fitness plan treatment of various ailments, traditional medicine is characterized by diversity with regard to the species of plants used.
The species belongs to the Amaranthaceae family and is widely distributed as a weed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant is popular in folk remedy in traditional systems of medicine in tropical Asia and African countries. Its diverse uses in the various traditional health care systems include the treatment of fever, wound healing, tooth ache, arthritis, gynecological disorders, urinary disorders, insect and snake bites, abdominal tumor, stomach pain and a number of other ailments Raj Neeta et al.
In east Africa the plant is used for treating tonsillitis, head wounds and ringworm. Different plant parts root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, and seeds are used individually for treating different illnesses, though the whole plant is also often used Shendkar et al. One of the factors affecting the efficacy of medicinal plant extracts is the environment in which the plant grows.
Environmental factors, to a greater extent, qualitatively and quantitatively model the chemical profiles of a plant and consequently the resulting biological activity of the extracts derived from them Ncube et al. In addition to the pharmacological screening of plant extracts, phytochemical profiling of the extracts provides a fundamental basis for explaining the often heterogeneous activity of similar extracts collected in different seasons or growing environments. While medical and commercial interests have always been the driving forces behind the search for new therapies, globalization is also accelerating the commodification of indigenous and local knowledge Posey, The variable depth and extent of the ethnopharmacological bioassays used to corroborate the observed health claims of traditionally used medicinal plants ultimately contribute to evidence-based medicine.
To this aim, Leonti and Casu attest that conclusive negative results may be as important as positive data. In light of this, the present study sought to investigate the antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities as well as characterisation of functional phenolic acids of A. Fresh leaves of A. The climatic conditions in KwaZulu-Natal, where Ukulinga is situated is sub-tropical, with temperatures influenced mostly by the warm Agulhas current that occurs along the Indian Ocean coastline.
Ciaat is situated in the southern zone of Achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, in the Horn of Africa. There are two rainy seasons with light rainfall in March and April and the main rainfall from late June to the beginning of September.
Dried plant materials were ground into powders and extracted non-sequentially 1: Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC values for antibacterial activity of the plant extracts were determined using the microdilution bioassay in well Greiner Bio-one GmbH, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, Germany microtitre plates Eloff, as detailed by Ndhlala et al.
Neomycin Sigma—Aldrich was used as zoloft and narcotics control. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts against Candida albicans ATCCa diploid fungus which exists in the form of a yeast, were evaluated using the microdilution assay Masoko et al. Amphotericin B Sigma—Aldrich was used as positive control. The anthelmintic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated against Caenorhabditis elegans var. Bristol N2a free living nematode, using a rapid colorimetric microdilution assay James and Davey, antibacterial linen spray modifications to obtain minimum lethal concentration MLC values Aremu et al.
The assay was done twice with each sample duplicated and levamisole Sigma—Aldrich was used as positive control. Deuterium-labeled internal standards of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 2,3,5,6-D4 and salicylic acid 3,4,5,6-D4 purchased from Cambridge Isotope Laboratories Andover, MA, USA were added at a final concentration of 10 -5 mol L -1 to the extraction solvent prior to the homogenization, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities.
Achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities of acetonitrile solvent B and aqueous 7. The supernatant was carefully removed without disturbing the precipitate. To the precipitate, 1. The resultant solution contained the dissolved phenolics-protein complex. Aliquots 1 ml of the above dissolved Phenolic-protein complex were transferred into clean sets of test tubes. Absorbance readings were taken at nm after 30 min of incubation at room temperature using a UV-visible spectrophotometer.
The absorbance readings were converted to gallic acid equivalents, using a standard curve. The obtained equivalents were multiplied by 1. After incubation at room temperature for 30 min, absorbance at nm was obtained as described above, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities. A linear regression curve between phenolic acid equivalents and mg sample in the aliquot taken was drawn using GraphPad Prism software. The protein-precipitating phenolics have already been measured as x see section Statistical Analysis.
Data from phenolic analysis and protein-precipitating capacity of samples collected between the two locations were compared using Student t -test at 0. In this study MIC values less than 1. In this study, anthelmintic activity was tested against C. It is, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, however, recommended that the use of at least two more organisms should be considered in order to make concrete conclusions. With the exception of water extracts against E.
Notable, is the almost 9 and 17 times more potency 0. Although these were not the only extract comparisons where samples from Ciaat displayed excellent bioactivities, MIC values as low as 0. Urinary infections and diseases of the uterus, which the plant species is claimed to cure in its traditional usage, may antibacterial water treatment for turtles caused by the tested pathogenic bacteria such as K.
It has been largely suggested that B. However, the organism was isolated from surgical wound-drainage sites, from a subphrenic abscess from a breast prosthesis and from ventriculo-atrial shunt infections Logan, Research has also revealed its involvement in endocarditis in a drug abuse patient, fatal pneumonia and bacteraemia in leukemic patients, septicaemia in a patient with breast cancer and infection of a necrotic axillary tumor in another breast cancer patient Logan, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, In addition to possible genetic polymorphism, these results could be a reflection of the existence of particular environmental condition s that account for the differences in the biological activity observed in this study.
These being affected through either up- or down-regulation of certain specific chemical profiles within plant tissues in response to specific stimuli. It will also be of particular interest to investigate how these plants will perform if grown under the same conditions and harvested at the same age. Determination of molecular profiles of the two plants could also be of interest. Interestingly, is that in most traditional herbal preparations, water is used as the major extractant Hoffmann, Water extracts from samples collected from Ciaat revealed good antibacterial, anthelmintic and antifungal activity in contrast to the samples collected from Ukulinga.
This vyvanse and hair loss remarkable results as the trend with most of the findings in other studies with water extracts report very poor activity Rabe and Van Staden, ; McGaw et al. Moreover, the Ciaat samples demonstrated good achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities against all the Gram-negative bacteria which are known to be more tolerant owing to them having an outer membrane which present a barrier to various antimicrobial molecules Sleigh and Timbury, This revealed major differences in the production of specific functional phenolic acids between the extracts of A.
Rutin, chlorogenic acid CGA and genistein were not detected in the Ukulinga samples while they were detected at significant levels in the Ciaat samples at 1. In another case, taxifolin was not detected in the Ciaat samples but was present at 0. Functional phenolic acid contents in extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Rutin is one of the phenolic acids found in many plants and has been shown to contributes to the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of most plant extracts van der Watt and Pretorius, ; Ibtissem et al.
Synthesis of rutin in plants occurs via a rutin synthase enzyme Lucci and Mazzafera, The fact that the Ukulinga samples did not have detectable amounts of rutin could be due to the low level or no expression of rutin synthase. This may then have had an impact on the antimicrobial and other bioactivities of Ukulinga A. Chlorogenic acid CGA is a natural ester of caffeic acid and - -quinic acid which is an important intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of lignin Wout et al.
CGA has known antioxidant properties, inhibit tumor promoting activity Tavani and Vecchia, ; Lee and Zhu, and has been shown to slow the release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal Johnston et al. This calls for the investigation of the antioxidants, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, weight loss and lowering of blood pressure of A. The variations in CGA in Ukulinga and Ciaat samples could affect the bioactivity achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities the two collection.
The biosynthesis of CGA is controlled by the phenylpropanoid and the shikimic acid pathways. Given that CGA are used as precursors for the synthesis of lignin, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities, higher activities of enzymes involved could deplete the pool of intermediates, depending on the environment and genetic polymorphism.
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase PAL catalyzes the first step of the general phenylpropanoide biosynthetic pathway, which produces a wide range of secondary compounds, such as flavonoides, coumarins and lignin Koshiro et al.
CGA is not directly involved in the bioactivities investigated in this study but, be that as it may, most of the phytochemical compounds do not impact bioactivity on their own or directly achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities work as a caucus or cartel of inter-related compounds to exert their effects. Genistein is a phytoestrogen isoflavone that is found abundantly in the plant kingdom.
Genistein has known anthelmintic, antioxidant properties and has been shown to interact with animal and human estrogen receptors.
Apart from these properties, genistein has tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity mostly of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR. The compound could also be responsible for wound healing properties of A, achyranthes aspera shows any antibacterial activities. Genistein has been shown to exert its anthelmintic activity by inhibiting the enzymes of glycolysis and glycogenolysis Veena et al.
Genistein was found to be the active anthelmintic agent in the tuber extract of the Felmingia vestita which is used traditionally as an anthelmitic plant by the Khasi tribes of India Rao and Reddy, However, the Ukulinga A. Biosythesised from leucocyanidin, 2-oxoglutarate, and O 2 by the action of leucocyanidin oxygenase, taxifolin has the capacity to stimulate fibril formation and promote stabilization of fibrillar forms of collagen.
Taxifolin has potential in the cosmetics industry as, like arbutin, it inhibits cellular melanogenesis and can be used as a hypopigmenting agents in cosmetics An et al. The ability of taxifolin to stimulate fibril formation, promote stabilization of fibrillar forms of collagen, and hypopigmention, could be important as a wound healing model of A. Taxifolin has been shown to boost the antibacterial efficacy of conventional antibiotics such as levofloxacin and ceftazidime, which supports the use of combinatory therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA An et al.
This makes Ukulinga A.