According to the Acupuncture cancer in animals Institute of Health more than 10 million adults acupuncture cancer in animals the U. What are the odds? About the same as a acupuncture cancer in animals coin flip coming up tails 99 times in a row or a fair investor always beating the market. Acupuncture is a medical technique usually involving the shallow insertion of needles through the skin at particular points on the body called acupoints. There are many different kinds of acupuncture, involving different kinds of needles, different insertion points, different techniques, and the use of various accompaniments such as electricity or moxibustion.
Some acupuncturists use low acupuncture cancer in animals laser beams ; others use magnetic BBs on patches applied to acupoints. There are other variations as well, such as microacupuncturewhich uses forty-eight non-traditional acupoints located on the hands and feet, and auriculotherapy or ear acupuncture, which postulates that the ear is a map of the bodily organs. Similar notions about a part of the body being an organ map are held by those who practice iridology the iris is the map of the body and reflexology the foot is the map of the body and traditional Chinese medicine the tongue is the map of the body.
Staplepuncture, a variation of auriculotherapy, puts staples at key points on the ear hoping to do such things as help people stop smoking or relieve withdrawal symptoms of heroin addicts. Acupressure applies pressure, rather than needles, to acupoints. Acupuncture is thought to have originated in Chinabut its origins and early use are controversial Basser Today, acupuncture, in one form or another, is practiced in dozens of countries by thousands of acupuncturists on millions of people and their animals.
While the origins and early development of acupuncture remain murky, it is clear that today many people around the world believe acupuncture is an effective medical treatment for a vast variety of disorders. This belief is not based simply on the fact that acupuncture is perhaps thousands of years old. Most people recognize that many medical treatments have been considered effective for many years before being discarded as our knowledge expanded. Most people also recognize that some medical therapies have been discarded not because they were found to be totally ineffective, but because other kinds of treatments were found to be more effective or to have fewer side-effects.
Millions of people have experienced the beneficial effects of acupuncture and thousands of scientific studies have concluded that acupuncture is effective for such things as the relief of pain, increasing fertility, acupuncture cancer in animals, treating rheumatoid arthritis, and relieving nausea after chemotherapy.
Skeptics challenge these studies, but with so much evidence piled up in favor of the effectiveness of acupuncture, one wonders why there are still many people who are skeptical of the practice. It may seem obvious to acupuncturists acupuncture cancer in animals to millions of their patients that the skeptics are mad, daft, or just being obstinate.
To them, it is obvious that acupuncture works and anyone who denies this must have some sort of mental defect. Is it possible that millions of people could be wrong? The tuna and vitamin e from both personal testimony and from scientific studies clearly shows that acupuncture works and is an effective medical treatment for many ailments.
The evidence from the scientific studies also shows clearly that sham acupuncture is just as effective as true acupuncture. What is not so clear to some people, but is easily ferreted out from the evidence, is that acupuncture most likely works by classical conditioning and other factors acupuncture cancer in animals are often lumped together and referred to as "the placebo effect. This does not mean that acupuncture is "all in the head," however.
This misunderstanding leads to the belief that the placebo effect is "all in the head, acupuncture cancer in animals. People can be conditioned to have physiological responses to placebos. Furthermore, Martina Amanzio et al. That is, we can be conditioned to release such chemical substances as endorphins, catecholamines, cortisol, and adrenaline, acupuncture cancer in animals.
One reason, therefore, that people report pain relief from both acupuncture and sham acupuncture may be that both stimulate the opioid system, acupuncture cancer in animals. So can a lot of other things of course, acupuncture cancer in animals, like running a marathon, having an orgasm, eating habanero chiles, or getting a saline injection that you think is morphine.
Medical anecdotes acupuncture cancer in animals the effectiveness of a treatment fall into several categories, acupuncture cancer in animals. Some of the stories are unquestionably true and probably justify the conclusion that the treatment was effective.
You go to your acupuncturist, your chiropractor, your aromatherapistor your physician for treatment. You leave the medical office feeling great and ride your bike home with no problem gripping and squeezing the brake lever. I hope it will become clear below why a thoughtful healer should wonder when such a patient leaves the office whether the success was due to the needles unblocking chi, the touching and massaging, the comforting and hopeful words, the injection, the spontaneous or natural resolution of the problem, or one of a host of other factors that might actually be the most significant causal agent in that particular healing process, acupuncture cancer in animals.
Some stories are unquestionably true, but they probably do not justify the conclusion that the treatment was effective. For example, we know that many people seek relief for acupuncture cancer in animals pain from a physician, chiropractor, or acupuncturist only when the pain becomes severe, acupuncture cancer in animals.
We also know that many types of pain follow cycles: In short, acupuncture cancer in animals, most pains and illnesses go away on their own, but some of them go away shortly after seeking treatment and this leads us to think erroneously that there is a causal connection between the treatment and the relief. We know for a fact, for example, acupuncture cancer in animals, that many patients who are given antibiotics by their physicians erroneously attribute their recovery from a viral infection to the medicine, acupuncture cancer in animals.
The patients really feel relief. They really show physiological changes. They really get better. Skepticism regarding the actual cause of recovery is clearly justified in some instances. But is skepticism regarding the cause of the recovery unwarranted in those cases where the patient has clearly benefited from the treatment? In other words, is it possible to be wrong about the cause of recovery in cases where we are clearly justified in attributing the recovery to acupuncture, homeopathy, chiropractic, or scientific medicine?
Yes, it is, and we know this from various studies involving such things as conditioning. Harriet Hall tells the story of a man who got a vasectomy without anesthesia because he was mistakenly injected with saline solution rather than lidocaine, acupuncture cancer in animals. She also tells the story of a woman whose severe headaches went away after being injected with saline.
The latter swore that only Demerol worked for her, but she had been conditioned to feel relief when she got a shot. As we will see below, when we review the scientific studies that have shown how conditioning affects our response to medical treatment, conditioning can involve much more than obvious factors like getting an injection, taking a acupuncture cancer in animals, or being touched where it hurts.
Conditioning can involve the theater of the medical setting and medical rituals, including the medical uniforms worn, medical jargon spoken, and medical gadgetry used. Patient expectation, yasmin drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol tablets turns out, plays a significant role in the effectiveness of many kinds of treatment.
In short, classical conditioning is "hypothesized to be the primary triggering mechanism for the placebo effect Whether a given effective treatment is due to conditioning and the placebo effect cannot be determined by asking either the patient or the healer, unless they are aware of scientific studies that have demonstrated whether the effectiveness is due to conditioning or the placebo effect.
A physician who prescribes antibiotics for a bacterial infection does so with knowledge that there are many scientific studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of antibiotics. The physician also has knowledge that bacterial infections cannot be treated effectively with placebos. Likewise, there are no placebo chemotherapies or birth control pills.
As long as there is sufficient knowledge to justify the treatment as a necessary condition for healing, the healer is warranted in concluding that successful treatment is due in large part to the treatment and not to a placebo effect. It is becoming more and more evident, however, that most successful medical treatments involve "placebo factors," i.
It may seem absurd to some people to even consider the possibility that millions of satisfied customers around the world could be responding to conditioning and placebo effects when they receive medical treatment, whether it be acupuncture or some science-based conventional therapy.
As noted already, however, no individual anecdote, no matter how dramatic, can provide us with enough information to know how much of the success was due to conditioning and placebo effects, and how much acupuncture cancer in animals due to some other mechanism such as the acupuncture cancer in animals of chi along pathways called meridians, or the balancing of yin and yangwhich are often offered as explanations of how acupuncture works.
The only way to determine whether acupuncture works by some other mechanism besides conditioning and placebo effects is to do randomized, double-blind, controlled studies. If that is not possible, then scientific studies must be devised that rule out, as far as possible, conditioning and placebo effects as the main factors in the effectiveness of acupuncture. Scientific control studies in medicine that attempt to determine whether something is a significant causal factor in producing a specific effect often use placebos as a control.
In most of acupuncture cancer in animals studies, the placebo is defined as acupuncture cancer in animals inert substance, and it is pitted against an active substance to see if there is any significant difference in outcome in different groups. The group getting acupuncture cancer in animals active pill is called the experimental group and the group getting the placebo is called the control group.
The classic case would compare a drug in pill form, acupuncture cancer in animals, of known chemical composition, with a pill that looks and is administered like the drug but is actually made of starch or sugar. Tamiflu and anise is known that placebos can have physiological and psychological effects.
So, it is legitimate to assume that if there is a significant difference in outcome between the placebo group and the experimental group that the difference is probably due to the experimental drug in a properly controlled study. However, it cannot be determined from that data alone just how effective the drug is. To know that, it is necessary to determine if there was a placebo effect and, if so, what it was. One method of isolating the placebo effect is to have a third group in the trial that receives neither the experimental drug nor the placebo pill.
If the placebo group shows a significant difference in outcome from this third group, it may seem reasonable to assume that the difference is due to the placebo effect. Such trials, however, tell us nothing about the mechanisms of the placebo effect. Sternum abnormality and asthma they are not carefully designed, we may mistakenly attribute causal effectiveness to both the chemical substance and the placebo.
Some or all of the effect could be caused by "false impressions of placebo effects," such as regression to the mean Kienle and Kiene A number of studies have shown that there is a placebo effect and that different people respond differently to placebos.
Furthermore, some people are more susceptible acupuncture cancer in animals the placebo effect than others and this may be genetic Furmark Most important is that the placebo and nocebo effects themselves have become the focus of study.
As noted above, classical conditioning; the hopes, acupuncture cancer in animals, desires, confidence, and expectations of the patient; the rituals of the treatment; the dress, gadgetry, and jargon that imply technical know-how in the healing theater; and the demeanor of the healer all contribute to the healing process.
These effects occur for all types of healing, alternative as well as scientific medicine. Other factors might confound a causal study, as well. InKienle and Kiene published an evaluation of the seminal placebo study by H. Beecher, "The Powerful Placebo. Kienle and Kiene found a number of other factors that could account for the data, acupuncture cancer in animals.
They called these factors "false impressions of placebo effects. A thoughtful healer should wonder when a patient leaves the office after a follow-up visit whether the success was due to the acupuncture or the pillor whether conditioning, placebos, and false placebos played major roles. Likewise, scientific researchers trying to isolate the effectiveness of a medical treatment must design their studies to control for not only placebo effects, but also for false placebo effects.
What is also becoming clear is that scientific medicine can be effective in many cases without any or much help from placebo or false placebo factors, while so-called alternatives such as acupuncture, aromatherapy, chiropractic, acupuncture cancer in animals, hypnotherapyacupuncture cancer in animals, and homeopathy work primarily or exclusively by conditioning and placebo effects.
There is no evidence that I know of that shows a diabetic must believe in the power of insulin for it to work. If you get a cold, however, it is very likely that you will get up one day soon and your cold will be gone.
In most cases, the cold will go away on its own in a week or two, and the treatment might make the patient feel better in the meantime. It would be criminal, however, to use acupuncture, texas childrens hospital and asthma center, or homeopathy to treat diabetes, AIDS, diphtheria, cholera, or the like.
Also, besides the risk of acupuncture cancer in animals from the needling process, there are cases where an acupuncture needle has punctured the right ventricle and a lung, causing it to collapse. The most common claim of success by acupuncture advocates is in the area of pain relief. As noted above, it is likely that acupuncture and sham acupuncture have an opioid effect. I have seen this effect first-hand.