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Zingiberaceae family and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C, antibacterial properties of turmeric. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism.
Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antibacterial properties of turmeric activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent. Curcumin or diferuloylmethane with chemical formula of 1,7-bis 4-hydroxymethoxyphenyl -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione Figure 1 and other curcuminoids constitute the main phytochemicals of Curcuma longa L.
Zingiberaceae family rhizome with the common name of turmeric [ 1 ]. This polyphenolic compound due to antibacterial properties of turmeric variety of biological activities has been gained significant attention of researches all over the world [ 2 — 5 ]. Turmeric, an ancient coloring spice of Asia, as the main source of curcumin is traditionally used for many remedies [ 6 ].
As shown in Figure 2curcumin due to a variety of specific characterizations is in interest of scientists in recent years. As many other plant materials, there are differences in the curcumin content for the Curcuma longa antibacterial properties of turmeric different geographical regions and it could be due to hybridization with other Curcuma species which could be important fact to choose the plant with higher content of curcumin [ 4 ].
Curcuma longa rhizome has been traditionally used as antimicrobial agent as well as an insect repellant [ 7 ]. Several studies have reported the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity for curcumin including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial properties of turmeric, and antimalarial activities. It was even studied as an antimicrobial agent suitable for textile materials. Results showed that curcumin in combination with aloe vera and chitosan could be a potential suppressor for microbial growth in cotton, wool, and rabbit hair assessed by the exhaustion method [ 10 ].
Either the continuous or batch dyeing process with curcumin provided textiles with antimicrobial properties beside the color. Mixture of curcumin with other antimicrobial agents is used for the development of antimicrobial skin gels and emulsions with improved skin protection and wound dressing properties [ 12 ]. Composition of curcumin with hydrogel silver nanoparticles is used to increase the function of hydrogel silver nanocomposites as marked substances for antimicrobial applications and wound dressing [ 12 ], antibacterial properties of turmeric.
Curcumin-loaded myristic acid microemulsion with the 0. It showed fold stronger inhibitory effect compared to curcumin activity dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO [ 13 ]. Bacterial infections are among the important infectious diseases. Hence, over 50 years of extensive researches have been launched for achieving new antimicrobial medicines isolated from different sources.
Despite progress in development of antibacterial antibacterial properties of turmeric, there are still special needs to find new antibacterial agents due to development of multidrug resistant bacteria [ 14 ]. The antibacterial study on aqueous extract of C, antibacterial properties of turmeric. The study of hexane and ethanol turmeric extract and curcuminoids from ethyl acetate extract of curcuminoids isolated from C.
The hexane antibacterial properties of turmeric methanol scripted lesson plan and math of C, antibacterial properties of turmeric. However, curcuminoids elicited inhibitory activities against 8 bacteria of Str. Indeed, it antibacterial properties of turmeric shown that the addition of 0. Moreover, it has decreased the Staph.
Turmeric oil as a byproduct from curcumin manufacture also was found effective against B, antibacterial properties of turmeric. Curcumin also exhibited inhibitory activity on methicillin-resistant Staph. The in vitro investigation of 3 new compounds of curcumin, namely, antibacterial properties of turmeric curcumin, indium diacetyl curcumin, and diacetyl curcumin, against Staph.
However, diacetylcurcumin did not exhibit any antibacterial effect against tested bacteria [ 21 ]. These results demonstrated promising antibacterial activity for different curcumin derivatives as well, antibacterial properties of turmeric.
The stability and assembly of FtsZ protofilaments as a crucial factor for bacterial cytokinesis are introduced as a possible antibacterial properties of turmeric target for antibacterial agents. Curcumin suppressed the B. It also without significantly affecting the segregation and organization of the nucleoids markedly suppressed the cytokinetic Z-ring formation in B.
It was demonstrated that curcumin reduces the bundling of FtsZ protofilaments associated with the binding ability to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 7. It showed that curcumin via inhibition of antibacterial properties of turmeric dynamics of FtsZ in the Z-ring can possibly suppress antibacterial properties of turmeric bacterial cell proliferation as one of the probable antibacterial mechanisms of action [ 22 ].
The study on E. Indeed, antibacterial property of cassava leaf extract inhibited the matrix metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-9 activity MMP-3 and MMP-9 as inflammatory molecules involved in H.
Curcumin showed more efficient therapeutic index than conventional triple therapy of H. In vivo study of antibacterial effect of curcumin on H. The reduction in inflammatory cytokine production was not reported from pylori -infected patients treated with curcumin [ 44 ]. The in vivo study of 1-week nonantibiotic therapy comprised of curcumin, pantoprazole, N-acetylcysteine, and lactoferrin against H.
However, the decrease in immunological criteria of gastric inflammation and dyspeptic symptoms was reported after 2 months of treatment schedule [ 45 ]. Nevertheless, the curcumin administration to the rats with H. In an in vivo study of H. The synergistic activity of curcuminoids and ampicillin combination demonstrated pronounced reduction in the MIC of ampicillin against either clinical strain or Staph.
Bacteriocin subtilosin isolated from B. The results proved that consumption of turmeric during the treatment of Staph. Curcumin also demonstrated a synergistic effect in combination with some antibiotics, including ampicillin, oxacillin, and norfloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staph. The synergistic effect of curcumin with ciprofloxacin against MRSA has also been reported, although there is an evidence of its antagonistic activity against S.
Strongly bound metal complexes to antimicrobial agents are introduced as another possible way for synergistic activity of respective antimicrobial agents through elevation of the binding effect of them to the bacterial walls. Complexes of curcumin with cobalt nanoparticles showed increased antibacterial activity against E. Additionally, fabrication of silver nanocomposite films impregnated with curcumin showed the stronger antibacterial activity against E.
In another in situ investigation, antibacterial properties of turmeric, the synergistic effect of curcumin encapsulated chitosan-[poly vinyl alcohol ] silver nanocomposite films was shown. The novel antimicrobial films with pronounced antimicrobial exhibition against E. Secretion of exopolysaccharide alginate via different stimulators such as aminoglycosides and imipenem consumption caused the increase in biofilm volume of P.
Anti-biofilm activity of curcumin against two strains of P. The curcumin treatment of the strains with MIC concentrations did not reveal noteworthy elevation in biofilm optical density [ 54 ]. The antimicrobial activities led to reduction of pathogenicity in Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans as whole plant and animal infected models with P. The results exhibited that curcumin can be a potential candidate for P.
In some cases the adverse effects of curcumin against different antibiotics were shown. Ciprofloxacin is the most effective antibiotic against typhoidal and nontyphoidal infection of Salmonella. The main mechanism for antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin is through SOS response, induction of chromosome fragmentation, and the production of ROS in the bacterial cell.
The in vivo and in antibacterial properties of turmeric investigations on curcumin together with ciprofloxacin showed that, antibacterial properties of turmeric, through interference with ciprofloxacin activity, it caused an elevation in proliferation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium S.
The study of curcumin activity in a murine model of typhoid fever exhibited relationships and love cancer 2009 elevation of Salmonella typhimurium pathogenicity and increased resistance to antimicrobial agents including antimicrobial peptides, nitrogen species, and reactive oxygen.
Upregulation of genes involved in antioxidative function like mntH, sitA, and sodA as well as other genes involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides including pmrD and pmrHFIJKLM was considered as a possible cause for the mentioned elevated tolerance.
Curcumin also induced upregulation effect on SPI2 genes involved in intracellular survival and downregulation activity on SPI1 genes involved for entry within epithelial cells. This information proved that the indiscriminate use of curcumin prozac and hair loss probably inhibit the pathogenesis of Salmonella [ 55 ].
Lack of effective therapeutics for the most of viral diseases, emergence of antiviral drug resistance, and high cost of some antiviral therapies necessitate finding new effective antiviral compounds [ 5657 ]. Additionally, the existing antiviral therapies are not always well-tolerated or quite effective and satisfactory [ 58 ]. Hence, the increasing requirement for antiviral substances will be more highlighted.
Plants as a rich source of phytochemicals with different biological activities including antiviral activities are in interest of scientists [ 5960 ].
It has been demonstrated that curcumin as a plant derivative has a wide range of antiviral activity against different viruses. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase IMPDH enzyme due to rate-limiting activity in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides is suggested as a therapeutic target for antiviral and anticancer compounds. Among the 15 different polyphenols, curcumin through inhibitory activity against IMPDH effect in either noncompetitive or competitive manner is suggested as a potent antiviral compound via this process [ 61 ].
Table 1 summarizes the antiviral activity of C. Viral long terminal repeat LTR has a critical role in transcription of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 provirus. Inhibition of LTR activity can be a possible pathway for antiviral drug candidates in order to block HIV-1 replication [ 6364 ].
Curcumin proved to be an effective compound to inhibit the HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression without any major effects on cell viability [ 24 ]. In addition, curcumin inhibited the acetylation of Tat protein of HIV significantly by p associated with suppression of HIV-1 multiplication. The elevated affinity of boron derivatives of antibacterial properties of turmeric is possibly associated antabuse drug interactions the attachment of the orthogonal domains of the compound in intersecting sites within the substrate-binding cavity of the protease [ 26 ].
Inhibition of deletion mutant of integrase containing only amino acids 50— indicated that curcumin possibly interacts with catalytic antibacterial properties of turmeric of the enzyme. The study of energy minimization and the structural analogs of curcumin elicited that an intramolecular stacking of two phenyl rings of curcumin is possibly responsible for anti-integrase activity via bringing the hydroxyl groups into close proximity [ 27 ]. However, through a clinical trial investigation on curcumin as an anti-HIV compound in 40 patients in eight weeks it was shown that there is no reduction in viral load or elevation in CD4 counts.
But patients claimed that they preferred to take the curcumin in order to tolerate the minor gastrointestinal antibacterial properties of turmeric and feel better [ 29 ]. This demonstrated that clinical trials can possibly show up with the results completely different from in vitro studies. The clinical trial of clear liquid soap containing 0. The plaque reduction test elicited the approximate EC 50 of 0, antibacterial properties of turmeric.
In H1N1 and also H6N1 subtypes, the inhibition of haemagglutinin interaction reflected the direct effect of curcumin on infectivity of viral particles and this has proved by time of drug addiction antibacterial properties of turmeric. Additionally, unlike amantadine, viruses developed no resistance to curcumin. The methoxyl derivatives of curcumin also did not show noteworthy role in the haemagglutination [ 30 ]. These results proved the significant potential of curcumin for inhibition of influenza.
In vitro study of curcumin and its derivatives, namely, gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin, exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV-1 in cell culture with IC 50 values of Curcumin considerably decreased the immediate early IE gene expression and infectivity of HSV-1 in cell culture assays.