Peptic ulcer stomach, duodenum definition and facts. What is a peptic ulcer? A peptic ulcer stomach or duodenal is a break in the inner lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. A peptic ulcer of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer; of the duodenum, a duodenal ulcer; and of the esophagus, an esophageal ulcer.
Peptic ulcers occur when the lining these organs is eroded by the acidic digestive peptic juices that the cells of the lining secrete of the stomach secrete.
A peptic ulcer differs from an erosion because it extends deeper into the lining and incites more of an inflammatory reaction from the tissues that are involved, occasionally with scaring. Peptic ulcer also is referred to as peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcer disease is common, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse, affecting millions of Americans yearly. Moreover, peptic ulcers are a recurrent problem; even healed ulcers can recur unless treatment is directed at preventing their recurrence.
The medical cost of treating peptic ulcer and its complications runs into billions of dollars annually.
Recent medical advances have increased our understanding of ulcer formation. Improved and expanded treatment options now are available. Bleeding ulcers are a big deal. Often having endoscopy is diagnostic and therapeutic. A gastroenterologist can use a fiberoptic camera to view the inside of the stomach and duodenum, searching for a source of bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms of stress and vitamin d ulcers? Symptoms of esophageal, duodenal or stomach ulcer disease vary. Many people with ulcers experience minimal indigestionabdominal discomfort that occurs after meals or no discomfort at all. Commonly people complain of upper abdominal zoloft and wellbutrin prescribed together or hunger pain one to three hours after meals or in the middle of the night.
Food or antacids that neutralize stomach acid often promptly relieve these symptoms. Are peptic ulcers painful? The pain of ulcer disease correlates poorly with the presence or severity of active ulceration. Some individuals have persistent pain even after an ulcer is almost completely healed by medication. Others experience no pain at all.
Ulcers often come and go spontaneously without the individual ever knowing that they are present unless a serious complication like bleeding or perforation occurs. What causes peptic ulcers? For many years, excess acid was believed to be the major cause of ulcer disease.
Accordingly, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse, the emphasis of treatment was on neutralizing and inhibiting the secretion of stomach acid. While acid is still considered necessary for the formation of ulcers and its suppression is still flagyl and anti alcohol abuse primary treatment, the two most important initiating causes of ulcers are infection of the stomach by a bacterium named " Helicobacter pylori " H.
Cigarette smoking also is an important cause of ulcers as well as failure of ulcer healing. It is estimated that half of the United States population older than age 60 has been infected with H. In the past, H. With increasing appreciation, diagnosis and treatment of this infection, the prevalence of infection with H. While the mechanism by which H, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse.
NSAIDs are medications used for the treatment of arthritis and other painful inflammatory conditions in the body. Aspirin, ibuprofen AdvilMotrinnaproxen AleveNaprosynand etodolac Lodine are a few examples of this class of medications.
Prostaglandins are substances produced by the body, which are important in helping the linings of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum to resist damage by the acidic digestive juices of the stomach. NSAIDs cause ulcers by interfering with the production of prostaglandins in the stomach. Cigarette smoking not only causes ulcers, but it also increases the risk of complications from ulcers such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation.
Cigarette smoking also is a leading cause of failure of treatment for ulcers. Contrary to popular belief, alcohol, coffee, colas, spicy foods, and caffeine have no proven role in ulcer formation. Similarly, there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that life stresses or personality types contribute to ulcer disease.
What does a stomach ulcer look like? How are peptic ulcers diagnosed? The diagnosis of an ulcer is made by either a barium upper gastrointestinal X-ray upper GI series or an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy EGD or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The barium upper gastrointestinal GI X-ray is easy to perform and involves no risk other than exposure to radiation or discomfort. Barium is a chalky substance that is swallowed. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is more accurate than X-rays, but usually involves sedation of the patient and the insertion of a flexible tube through the mouth to inspect the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
Upper endoscopy has the added advantage of having the capability of removing small tissue samples biopsies to test for H, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse. Biopsies are also examined under a microscope to exclude a cancerous ulcer. While virtually all duodenal ulcers are benign, gastric ulcers can occasionally be cancerous. Therefore, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse, biopsies often are performed on gastric ulcers to exclude cancer.
Is there a special diet for peptic ulcer disease? There is no conclusive evidence that dietary restrictions and bland diets play a role in ulcer healing. No proven relationship exists between peptic flagyl and anti alcohol abuse disease and the intake of coffee and alcohol. However, since coffee stimulates gastric acid secretion, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse, and alcohol can cause gastritismoderation in alcohol and coffee consumption is recommended.
What is the treatment for peptic ulcers? Can they be cured? The goal of ulcer treatment is to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and prevent complications. The next step is medications. Many people harbor H. It is not completely clear whether these patients should be treated with antibiotics. More studies are needed to answer this question. Patients with documented ulcer disease and H. Treatment requires a combination of several antibiotics, sometimes in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor, H2 blockers, or Pepto-Bismol.
Commonly used antibiotics are tetracyclineamoxicillinmetronidazole Flagylclarithromycin Biaxinand levofloxacin Levaquin. Elimination of this bacteria also may decrease the risk of developing gastric cancer in the future. Treatment with antibiotics carries the risk of allergic reactions, diarrheaand sometimes severe antibiotic-induced colitis inflammation of the colon. Antacids neutralize existing acid in the stomach. Antacids such as MaaloxMylantaflagyl and anti alcohol abuse Amphojel are safe and effective treatments.
However, the neutralizing action of these agents is short-lived, and frequent dosing is required. Magnesium containing antacids, such as Maalox and Mylanta, can cause diarrheawhile aluminum containing agents like Amphojel can cause constipation.
Ulcers frequently return when antacids are discontinued. Studies have shown that a protein released in the stomach called histamine stimulates gastric acid secretion. Histamine antagonists H2 blockers are drugs designed to block the action of histamine on gastric cells and reduce the flagyl and anti alcohol abuse of acid.
Examples of H2 blockers are cimetidine Tagametranitidine Zantacnizatidine Axidand famotidine Pepcid. While H2 blockers are effective in ulcer healing, they have a limited role in eradicating H. Therefore, ulcers frequently return when H2 blockers are stopped.
Generally, H2 blockers are well tolerated and have few side effects even with long-term use. In rare instances, patients report headacheflagyl and anti alcohol abuse, confusionlethargy, or hallucinations.
Chronic use of cimetidine may rarely cause impotence or breast swelling. Patients on these drugs anti depressants effects on menstral cycle drink alcohol may have elevated blood alcohol levels.
Frequent monitoring and adjustments of the dosages of these medications may be needed. Proton-pump inhibitors such as omeprazole Priloseclansoprazole Prevacidpantoprazole Protonixesomeprazole Nexiumand rabeprazole Aciphex are more potent than H2 blockers in suppressing acid secretion. The different proton-pump inhibitors are very similar in action and there is no evidence that one is more effective than the other in healing ulcers, flagyl and anti alcohol abuse.
While proton-pump inhibitors are comparable to H2 blockers in effectiveness in treating gastric and duodenal ulcers, they are flagyl and anti alcohol abuse to H2 blockers in treating esophageal ulcers. Esophageal ulcers are more sensitive than gastric and duodenal ulcers to minute amounts of acid. Therefore, more complete acid suppression accomplished by proton-pump inhibitors is important for esophageal ulcer healing. Flagyl and anti alcohol abuse inhibitors are well tolerated.
Side effects are uncommon; they include headachediarrheaconstipationnausea and rash. Proton-pump inhibitors have also been found to be safe when flagyl and anti alcohol abuse long term, without serious adverse health effects. Although they may promote loss of bone flagyl and anti alcohol abuse and low magnesium levels, both of these side effects are easily identified and treated.
Sucralfate Carafate and misoprostol Cytotec are agents that strengthen the gut lining against attacks by acidic digestive juices. Sucralfate coats the ulcer surface and promotes healing.
Sucralfate has very few side effects. The most common side effect is constipation and the interference with the absorption of other medications. Misoprostol is a prostaglandin-like substance commonly used to counteract the ulcerogenic effects of NSAIDs. Studies suggest that misoprostol may protect the stomach from ulceration among people who take NSAIDs chronically.
Diarrhea is a common side effect.