Botany Malunggaian is a handsome, deciduous tree growing 6 to 15 meters high. Bole is straight and cylindrical, without branches up to 10 meters. Leaves are crowded, long-stalked, 30 to 90 centimeters long, usually bipinnate. Leaflets are in 2 to 5 pairs, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 4 to 8 centimeters long. Panicles in the upper axils are shorter than the leaves, and many flowered. Flowers are numerous, violet and white, fragrant, about 8 millimeters long, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties, borne on the upper axils of the leaves.
Fruit is drupaceous, ellipsoid, about 1. Seed is solitary in each cell, pointed smooth and brown. Distribution - Along the seashore, and in thickets and secondary forestsetc. Constituents - Fruit yields a bitter principle, a white crystalline vitamin e and black skin ; also, malic acid, glucose, mucilage, and pectin. See study below 10 - Leaf extract evaluation yielded the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, terpenoids diterpenes and sesquiterpenes antioxidants, phenolic derivatives, and lipophylic organic compounds.
Phytochemical compounds were linolenic acid, palmitic acid, caryophyllene, humulene, aromadendrene, probucol, germacrene-d, phthalic acid 6-ethyloctyl, butylated hydroxy toluene. See study 15 - Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of bark yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, gums, and mucilages. Constituents - Leaf extract yielded alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, and flavonoids. The major constituents were phytol Properties - Fruit has a bitter, nauseous taste.
Toxicity concerns - Fruit is highly toxic to warm blooded animals. Ripe fruits are more toxic than green unripe ones. As few as six fruits can cause nausea, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties, spasm, even fatalities in children, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties. The bark and young flowers are reportedly less toxic than the berries.
Some report the fresh leaves to be harmless. Review of Chinese medical literature reports that human M. M azedarach poisoning may result in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory or neurological effects, and death in severe cases.
There have been scattered reports of human fatalities and non-fatal toxicities: Pulp of seeds reportedly fatal to dogs. Parts used Fruit, leaves, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties, stems.
Uses Edibility - Leaves are cooked; imparts a bitter flavor; used as pot-herb, in curries and soup. The stools noticed to become a brilliant yellow after use. Infusion also used for chronic malarial fevers; and as a powerful alterative for chronic syphilitic infections.
Young twigs used as toothbrush. Grahi-inspissant, stomachic, digestive; Kasahara-removes cough; Pittahara-pacifies pitta dosha; Raktadoshahr-blood purifying. Bark used for asthma, hallucinations, malaria, nausea, piles, tumor, urinary diseases, vomiting, rat poisoning. Also, used for prickly heat. Timber is useful, durable but light and not resistant to white ants.
Known resistance to termites, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties. Leaves lopped for fodder and are highly nutritious. Oil used as illuminant.
Contains toxic components; aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves and seed use for insect, mites and nematode pest control. Leaf extract has insecticidal property; repels insects in clothing. Powdered dust of fruit, crude extract of wood and bark are also insecticidal. Bark yields a red dye. Fruit stones used as beads in making necklaces and rosaries.
Results of study of total fruit extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice suggests it is not only safe, but also an effective, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties and novel hypoglycemic agent. Study showed the essential oil of Melia dubia leaf exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties, E coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Fusarium oxysporum and C albicans.
Eighteen plants with ethnomedicinal background were screened for antivral activity against GSV The extract of Melia dubia showed partial viral activity at higher concentrations. Study isolated salannin, a bitter principle from the fruits of M. Melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against P. Study evaluated extracts of leaves for antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. An ethanolic extract inhibited a-amylase at a lower concentration than Acarbose.
Solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity. High phenolic and flavonoid contents were assumed responsible for antidiabetic and antioxidant potential. Results showed an ethanolic extract with potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. Study showed a Melia dubia petroleum ether fraction to exhibit maximum zone of inhibitions for all all the tested human pathogens.
Study evaluated various extracts of seed for larvicidal effect on malarial fever philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties, Culex quinquefasciatus. Study showed effective bioactivity of acetone extract against teak defoliator, Hybleae puera and Ailanthus defoliator Atteva fabricella and Eligma narcissisu.
Results suggest a potential of B. Study evaluated growth inhibitory and deterrency of Melia dubia extracts to Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa amigera. Dichlorethane DCE and methanol Me extracts inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. The DCE was more toxic to larvae than the Me extract. Salannin from the DCE fraction showed antifeedant activity. Study of ethanol and aqueous extracts of bark of Melia dubia showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
Effects were comparable aplastic anemia caused by diabetes mellitus neomycin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus showed significant sensitivity to the alcohol extract.
Study evaluated an ethyl acetate philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties of leaves and root for mosquito larvicidal and antimicrobial activity. Results showed significant larvicial activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.
In-vitro antimicrobial screening exhibited a wide range of activity with leaves and root extracts showing inhibition philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties growth of K. Study reported the bio-fabrication of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of M. The Philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties were stable and proved to be excellent activity against tested pathogenic fungi A. Study evaluated the antiurolithiatic activity of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia leaves.
The aqueous, acetone and ethanol extracts showed remarkable dose dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal formation. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibitory effect. Extracts of fruits, seeds and leaves of M. Plant parts have also been shown to have potential as insecticidal, acaricidal, fungicidal and rodenticidal.
Study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts and fractions of M. The seed kernel extract of M. Phytochemical analysis isolated four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferaolO-robinobioside, philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties, kaempferolO-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with purin nucleoside, I2-adenosine.
The methanol leaf fraction of M. Study investigated the antifungal potential of hexane and methanolic extracts of Melia azedarach bark against yeast-like fungi Candida albicans, C. The n-hexane and methanolic extracts showed high inhibition against Candida krusei and better zones of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus synthroid and dieting. Candida tropicalis and C.
The ethanolic seed extract showed to be the most active. Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of leaves extract against simvastatin induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed significant changes in biochemical parametersrestored towards normalization in M. Study showed the leaves of MA to possess an erythrocyte protective activity against drug-induced oxidative stress.
Drupe extracts of MA in Argentina showed better activity against tapeworm than standard piperazine phosphate used for Cestodal infections. Extract of leaves of MA isolated a limonoid which showed antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis and herpes simples virus. Study of aqueous extract of MA showed to be effective against ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in albino rats. Study evaluated philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties quantit ative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats using seed extracts of M.
Results suggest the polar and non-polar fractions of A indica and M azedarach seed extracts significant reduced the number of follicles in rats, with maximum reduction occurring with the Philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties e d ar ach extract.
Leaf extract from M azedarach L. Study of the antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of the biherbal ethanolic extracts of M azedarach and Piper longum showed potent antihepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute toxicity in rat liver.
The effect was probably related to its marked antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach showed effective larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Results suggest a potential use as larvicidal agent to control mosquito populations. Study of a methanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats showed significant hepatoprotective activity.
Study of aqueous extract of leaves of Melia azedarach on anti-ulcer activity in aspirin-induced and pylorus-ligated rate showed antiulcer effects comparable to the standard drug Omeprazole.
Study of Melia azedarach seed extract in adult cyclic Wistar rats showed a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats with associated histological changes. Results suggest the plant extract philippine herbal medicines antibacterial properties a potential use in a rodent control program.