What is psoriatic arthritis? Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a form of inflammation of the skin psoriasis and joints inflammatory arthritis. Signs and symptoms include patchy, raised, red areas of skin inflammation with scaling. Psoriasis often affects the tips of the elbows and knees, the scalp and ears, the navel, and around the genital areas or anus. Patients who have inflammatory arthritis and psoriasis are diagnosed as having psoriatic arthritis.
The onset of psoriatic arthritis generally occurs in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Males and females are affected equally, psoriatic arthritis and triggers.
The skin disease psoriasis and the joint disease arthritis often appear separately. In some patients, the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis can be difficult if the arthritis precedes psoriasis by many years.
In fact, some patients have had arthritis for over 20 years before psoriasis eventually appears! Conversely, patients can have psoriasis for over 20 years prior to the development of arthritis, leading to the ultimate diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis is a systemic rheumatic disease that also can cause inflammation in body tissues away from the joints other than the skin, such as in the eyes, heart, lungsand kidneys.
All of these health conditions can cause inflammation in the spine and other joints, and the eyes, skin, mouth, and various organs. In view of their similarities and tendency to cause inflammation of the spine, these health conditions are collectively referred to as "spondyloarthropathies. If the spine is affected, there can be pain and stiffness in the low back, buttocks, psoriatic arthritis and triggers, and upper back.
Tendons can also become inflamed, and if Achilles tendinitis is present, other symptoms can include limping, pain with walking, and pain with climbing stairs. Enthesitis, or the inflammation of the areas at which ligaments and tendons meet the bone, is often a feature of psoriatic arthritis. What antibacterial shampoo for people psoriatic arthritis?
The cause of psoriatic arthritis is currently unknown. A combination of genetic, immune, and environmental factors is likely involved. Several other genes have also been found to be more common in patients with psoriatic arthritis.
Certain changes in the immune system may also be important in the development of psoriatic arthritis. For example, the decline in the number of immune cells called helper T cells in people with AIDS HIV infection may play a role in the development and progression of psoriasis in these patients.
The importance of infectious agents and other environmental factors in the psoriatic arthritis and triggers of psoriatic arthritis is being investigated by researchers. What are risk factors for developing psoriatic arthritis?
The major risk factor for developing psoriatic arthritis is having a family member with psoriasis. This relationship has been recognized as so significant that it is used as a helpful part of the health history for the doctor to aid in the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. However, precisely how these emotional issues are related to psoriatic arthritis has not been established. What are the different types of psoriatic arthritis? The type of psoriatic arthritis depends on the distribution of the joints affected.
Accordingly, there are five types of psoriatic arthritis: What are psoriatic arthritis symptoms and signs? In psoriatic arthritis and triggers patients, the psoriasis precedes the arthritis by months to years. There can be tiny pitting nail changes of the finger and toenails, psoriatic arthritis and triggers. The arthritis frequently involves the knees, ankles, and joints in the feet.
Usually, only a few joints are inflamed at a time. Severe allergic reaction and intravenous prednisolone inflamed joints become painful, stiff, swollen, hot, tender, and red. There is usually loss of range of motion of the involved joints.
Sometimes, joint inflammation in the fingers or toes can cause swelling of the entire digit dactylitis psoriatic arthritis and triggers, giving them a sausage-like appearance.
Joint stiffness is a common symptom and is typically worse early in the morning. Less commonly, psoriatic arthritis may involve many joints of the body in a symmetrical fashion, mimicking the pattern seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis can also cause inflammation of the spine spondylitis and the sacrum sacroiliitiscausing other symptoms like pain and stiffness in psoriatic arthritis and triggers low back, psoriatic arthritis and triggers, buttocks, neck, psoriatic arthritis and triggers upper back.
Occasionally, psoriatic arthritis involves the small joints at the ends of the fingers. Psoriatic arthritis and triggers very destructive, though less common, form of arthritis called "mutilans" can cause rapid joint damage. Fortunately, this form of arthritis is rare in patients with psoriatic arthritis.
Patients with psoriatic arthritis can also develop inflammation of the tendons tendinitistendon insertion points on bone enthesitisinflammation of the enthesesand around cartilage. Inflammation of the tendon behind the heel causes Achilles tendinitis, leading to pain with walking and climbing stairs.
Inflammation of the chest wall and of the cartilage that links the ribs to the breastbone sternum can cause chest painas seen in costochondritis. Inflammation in the colored portion of psoriatic arthritis and triggers eye iris causes iritisa painful health condition that can be aggravated by bright light as the iris opens and closes the opening of the pupil.
Corticosteroids injected directly into the eyes are sometimes necessary to decrease inflammation and prevent blindness. Inflammation in and around the lungs pleuritis causes chest painespecially with deep breathing as the lungs expand against the inflamed areas, as well as shortness of breath.
Inflammation of the aorta aortitis can cause leakage of the aortic valves, leading to heart failure and shortness of breath. Acne and nail changes are symptoms commonly seen in psoriatic arthritis. Onycholysis, or separation of the nail bed, may also occur. Interestingly, these characteristic nail changes are observed in only a minority of psoriasis patients who do not have arthritis.
Acne has been noted to occur in higher frequency in patients with psoriatic arthritis. In fact, a syndrome exists that features inflammation of the joint lining synovitisacnepustules on the feet or palms, thickened and inflamed bone hyperostosispsoriatic arthritis and triggers, and bone inflammation osteitis.
What types of doctors treat psoriatic arthritis? Psoriatic arthritis is generally treated by rheumatologists, health specialists in diagnosing and treating arthritis and autoimmune diseases. Other doctors who may be involved in the care of patients with psoriatic arthritis include dermatologists and primary-care doctors, including family and general practitioners and internal medicine specialists.
When surgical treatment is needed for severe joint disease, orthopedic surgeons can be consulted. Other health care givers can include occupational and physical therapists.
How does a health care professional diagnose psoriatic arthritis? There is no laboratory test to diagnose psoriatic arthritis. Blood tests such as sedimentation rate may show an abnormal elevated result and merely reflect presence of inflammation in the joints and other organs of the body.
Other blood tests, such as rheumatoid factorare obtained to exclude rheumatoid arthritis. When one or two large joints such a knees are inflamed, arthrocentesis can be performed.
Arthrocentesis is an office procedure whereby a psoriatic arthritis and triggers needle is used to withdraw aspirate fluid from the inflamed joints. The fluid is then analyzed for inflammation, infection, gout crystals, and other inflammatory conditions.
Typical X-ray findings include bony erosions resulting from arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and triggers, but these may not be present in early disease. MRI scanning is sometimes used to identify early erosion of joints. The blood test for the genetic marker HLA-B27, mentioned above, is often performed.
What is the treatment for psoriatic arthritis? The medical treatment of the arthritis aspects of psoriatic arthritis is described below. The treatment of psoriasis and the other involved organs is beyond the scope of this article, psoriatic arthritis and triggers.
Generally, the treatment of arthritis in psoriatic arthritis involves a combination of anti-inflammatory medications NSAIDs and exercise, psoriatic arthritis and triggers. If progressive inflammation and joint destruction occur despite NSAIDs treatment, more potent medications such as methotrexate RheumatrexTrexallcorticosteroids, and antimalarial medications such as hydroxychloroquine [Plaquenil] are used.
Exercise programs can be done at home or with a physical therapist and are customized according to the disease and physical capabilities of each patient, psoriatic arthritis and triggers. Warm-up stretching, or other techniques, psoriatic arthritis and triggers, such as a hot shower or heat applications are helpful to relax muscles prior to exercise.
Ice application after the routine can help minimize post-exercise soreness and inflammation. In general, exercises for arthritis are performed for the purpose of strengthening and maintaining or improving joint range of motion.
They should be done on a regular basis for best results. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs are a group of medications that are helpful in reducing joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness. Their most frequent side effects include stomach upset and ulceration. The drugs can also cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Disease-modifying medications are important to prevent progressive joint destruction and deformity. Saw palmetto and hair loss drugs include methotrexate, psoriatic arthritis and triggers is used orally or can be given by injection on a weekly basis for psoriatic arthritis as well as for psoriasis alone.
It can cause bone-marrow suppression, as well as liver damage with long-term use. Regular monitoring of blood zoloft and fish oil and liver blood tests should be performed during therapy with methotrexate.
Antimalarial medication, such as hydroxychloroquine Plaquenilpsoriatic arthritis and triggers, is psoriatic arthritis and triggers used for persistent psoriatic arthritis. Its potential side effects include injury to the retina of the eye. Regular ophthalmologist examinations are suggested while using this medication.
Sulfasalazine Azulfidine is an oral sulfa-related medicine that has also been helpful in some patients with persistent psoriatic arthritis. It should be taken with food, as it, too, can cause gastrointestinal upset, psoriatic arthritis and triggers. Medical research has demonstrated effective treatment of both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis trandate administration and dosage leflunomide Aravaa medication that is also used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Medications that block the chemical messenger known as tumor necrosis factor TNF are another treatment option for moderate to severe psoriatic arthritis. The TNF-blockers etanercept Enbrelinfliximab Remicadeadalimumab Humiragolimumab Simponiand certolizumab pegol Cimzia are also referred to as biologic medications and can be very effective for severe psoriatic arthritis.
They can significantly improve or eradicate both the psoriasis and the arthritis as well as stop progressive joint damage. These medications are given psoriatic arthritis and triggers or by injections.