The population at the census was ,  in an area of Among the sertraline and vaginal bleeding archaeological structures dating back to the Roman erawhen Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminiumare its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus.
Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal from to still remain. During the Late Middle Ageswith its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of PortugalCoimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra inthe oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world.
Apart from attracting many European and international studentsthe university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. The city, located on a hill by the Mondego Riverwas called Aeminium in Roman times. Although Conimbriga had been administratively important, Aeminium affirmed its position by being situated southwest allergy and asth southlake the confluence of the north-south traffic that connected the Roman Bracara Augusta later Braga and Olisipo later Lisbon with its waterway, which enabled connections with the interior and coast, renaissance specific plan and santa ana.
The limestone table on which the settlement grew has a dominant position overlooking the Mondego, circled by fertile lands irrigated by its waters, renaissance specific plan and santa ana.
Vestiges of this early history include the cryptoporticus of the former Roman forum now part of the Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro. The move of the settlement and bishopric of Conimbriga to Aeminium resulted in the name change to Conimbrigaevolving later to Colimbria. The first Muslim campaigns that occupied the Iberian peninsula occurred between andwith Coimbra capitulating to Musa bin Nusair in Although it was not a large settlement, Qulumriyah Arabic: Successively the Moors retook the castle in — and again incapturing two castles constructed to protect the territory: Henry expanded the frontiers of the County, confronting the Moorish forces, and upon his death inTheresa, Countess of Portucale and Coimbra, unified her possessions.
During the 12th century, Afonso Henriques administered an area of fertile lands with river access and protected by a fortified city, whose population exceeded inhabitants, including magnatesknights and high clergy.
The young Infante encouraged the construction of his seat, funding the Santa Cruz Monastery the most important Portuguese monastic institution at the time, founded in by Theotoniuspromoted the construction of the Old Cathedralreconstructed the original Roman bridge inrecuperated fountains, kilns, roads and stone pavements, as well as renovating the walls of the old city.
In order to confirm and reinforce the power of the concelho municipality he conceded a formal foral charter in Already in the Middle AgesCoimbra was divided into an upper city Cidade Alta or Almedinawhere the aristocracy and the clergy lived, and the merchant, artisan and labour centres in the lower city Arrabalde or Cidade Baixa by the Mondego Riverin addition to the old and new Jewish quarters.
The city was renaissance specific plan and santa ana by a fortified wallof which some remnants are still visible like the Almedina Gate Porta da Almedina.
The most important work in Gothic style in the city is the Monastery of Santa Renaissance specific plan and santa anafounded on the left side of the river Mondego by Queen Elizabeth of Portugal in the first half of the 14th century. It stood too close to the river, and frequent floods forced the nuns to abandon it in the 17th century, when the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Nova was built uphill.
The ruins of the old convent were excavated in the s, and can renaissance specific plan and santa ana seen today in the left bank of the river. In the 15th and 16th centuries, during the Age of DiscoveryCoimbra was again one of the main artistic centres of Portugal thanks to both local and royal patronage. Dating from this period are the remodelling in manueline style of the Santa Cruz Monasteryincluding the tombs of Kings Afonso Henriques and Sancho Ithe Renaissance Manga Fountain, the altarpieces and triumphal portal of the Old Cathedralamong other works.
The University was relocated to Coimbra inbut in the King D, renaissance specific plan and santa ana. Afonso IV returned the University to Lisbon. Since then, city life has revolved around the state-run university. Built in the 18th century, the Joanina Library Biblioteca Joaninaa Baroque library, is other notable landmark of the ancient university.
The collections of scientific instruments and material acquired then are nowadays gathered in the Science Museum of the University of Coimbraand constitute one of the most important historical science collections in Europe. In Marchrenaissance specific plan and santa ana, the militia successfully held the place against the retreating French army.
The city recovered in the second half of the 19th century with infrastructure improvements like the telegraphgas light, the railway system, a railway bridge over the Mondego River and the renovation of the Portela bridge, in addition to the broadening of roads and expansion of the city into the Quinta de Santa Cruz. Bywith the expulsion of the religious orders and municipal reforms, the need to reorganize the municipality of Coimbra forced some changes in the existing structure of the administrative divisions.
Consequently, documents were sent on 20 January to the Ministries of Ecclesiastical Affairs Portuguese: This was only the initiation of the municipality growth. Even projects that had been planned at the end of the 19th century gained new initiative, including the expansion of the Santa Cruz neighbourhood bairrothe demolition of the residential area of the Alta de Coimbra —50 to expand the University, and construction or expansion of the bairros of Celas, Sete Fontes and Marechal Carmona now the bairro of Norton de Matos.
The municipality is circled by several of its neighbouring municipalities in the Baixo Mondego region, which include Penacova in the northeastVila Nova de Poiares to the eastMiranda do Corvo to the southeastCondeixa-a-Nova to the south and southwestMontemor-o-Velho to the westCantanhede to the northwest and Mealhada in the north and northeast. Although it ceased in the 13th century to serve as the capital of PortugalCoimbra retains considerable importance as the centre of the former Beira province, naproxen anti anxiety designated the Centro region, renaissance specific plan and santa ana.
It is considered alongside Braga one of the two most important regional centres in Portugal outside the Lisbon and Portos metropolesthe centre for the whole middle region of the country. With a dense urban grid, the municipality is known primarily for the city of Coimbra, itself famous for its monuments, churches, libraries, museums, parks, nightlife, healthcare and shopping facilities.
Complementing these natural spaces are the riverside parks and bathing areas that line the Mondego, including the river beaches of Palheiros do Zorro, in the parish of Torres do Mondego. Portuguese Institute of Meteorology. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 18 civil parishes freguesias: As ofthe municipality of Coimbra had a population ofrenaissance specific plan and santa ana, inhabitants covering an area of While per inhabitants, seniors actually comprise The municipality of Coimbra has a resident population ofinhabitants, and seasonal population of approximatelyresidents.
Public transport covers Similarly, public telephones have a The wealth of the city rests mostly on the University of Coimbra with about 20, students — the city has a total of 35, higher education students considering the other higher education institutions based there — but also in shopping, technology and health sciences industry, administrative offices, financial services, law firms and specialized medical care.
The city has many private clinics, medical offices and two large independent state hospital centres: Coimbra has also the regional branch of the national cancer hospital — the I.
The Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legalthe state-run forensic science institute renaissance specific plan and santa ana Portugal, is headquartered in Coimbra. Handicraft industry is well represented by traditional tapestry and pottery manufacture, renaissance specific plan and santa ana, and the surroundings of the city have besides forestrydynamic horticulture production, vineyards and livestock raising.
The Instituto Pedro Nunes Pedro Nunes Institutea business incubatordynamically hosts several start-ups which are usually dedicated to technology-related businesses and became independent spin-off companies headquartered across the whole region.
Coimbra has a fresh produce open-air market on every 7th and 23rd days of the month at Feira dos 7 thesis cancer and marijuana dos 23and a large fresh produce market in downtown at Mercado D. The Baixa downtown of Coimbra has many coffeehouses and bakeries, and features several specialty shops selling all kind of products in typical old-fashioned architectural surroundings.
The two banks of Mondego river at Coimbra, are linked by three main bridges: In the past, the city also had a tram network some are now parked inside a transportation museum.
Taxicabs are also available, and are recognizable as cream or black and green black car with green rooftop taxis. The city is a hub for interregional bus services for all the country and abroad. A light-rail metro system, Metro Mondegowas proposed however the project was abandoned at the height of Portuguese financial crisis. Coimbra has several rail stations. The principal station Coimbra-B is on the main line between Porto and Lisbon.
In addition, train-hotel Lusitania connects Coimbra and Madrid every night. From this station, a small spur runs to Coimbra-Athe main station in the city centre.
This line was closed for upgrading as part of the Metro Mondego project and was never re-opened when the Metro Mondego project was abandoned, however there is local agitation for this line to be reopened. Coimbra is served by motorway A1 which connects Lisbon to Porto. With a metres 3, feet runway and Flight Information Service until the sunset, this regional airport has all the fundamental facilities for private flights.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Coimbra, for example tizanidine and gerd and from work, on a weekday is 35 min. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 12 min, renaissance specific plan and santa ana Coimbra has been called A cidade dos estudantes The city of the students or Lusa-Atenas Lusitan-Athensmainly because it is the site of the oldest and one of the largest universities in Portugal — the University of Coimbraa public university whose origins can be traced back to the 13th century.
Besides that, there are also some other schools and institutes of higher education in the city: There is also the Coimbra Hotel and Tourism School.
Coimbra celebrates its municipal holiday on 4 Renaissance specific plan and santa ana, in honour of Queen Elizabeth of Portugal spouse of the King Denis ; a religious and civic celebration that celebrated the life of the former Queen, that includes a fireworks display following the night-time march of the penitents.
The Fado de Coimbra is a highly stylized genre of fado music originated in Coimbra. In addition, Coimbra has a contemporary music, boasting several live music venues, and some of the most popular clubs and music festivals in Portugal.
According to tradition, to applaud fado in Lisbon one would clap his hands, while in Coimbra cough as if clearing the throat is the typical way. Two are held every year. The first one, Latada or Festa das Latas "The Tin Can Parade" is a homecoming parade that occurs at the beginning of the academic year, and is a welcome to the new university students Caloiros, renaissance specific plan and santa ana. The Festa das Latas goes back to the 19th century when the Coimbra students felt the need to express their joy at finishing the school year in as loud a way as possible, using everything at their disposal that would make noise, namely tin cans.
The highlight of this festival, which now takes place at the beginning of the academic year November is the special parade known as the Latada. After marching through the streets of the city the new students are "baptized" in the Mondego River thus entering into the Coimbra academic fraternity.
Besides the tin cans they have tied to their legs, the new students wear all kinds of costumes made up according to the creativity and imagination of their godmothers or godfathers who are older students. They also carry placards renaissance specific plan and santa ana ironic criticisms alluding to certain teachers, the educational system, national events and leaders.
The second one, Queima das Fitas "The Burning of the Renaissance specific plan and santa anatakes place at the end of the second semester usually in the beginning of May and it is one of the biggest student parties renaissance specific plan and santa ana all Europe. The academic festivities are opened to the entire city community and attract a large number of national and international tourists as well.
Coimbra has a lively music scene that caters for most tastes with lots of festivals and events beyond the academic festivals and the traditional Coimbra fado genre. It boasts several renaissance specific plan and santa ana music venues, and some of the most popular club nights and music festivals in Portugal. The Centro region is the third-largest regional media salt and vitamin c effects in Portugal.
There is a wide variety of accommodation available, ranging from the camping -park or one of the many inexpensive hostels to the charming downtown hotels and international chain hotels. Coimbra has many attractive and pleasant green spaces such as parksplaygroundsgardens and forests. The most famous park in the city is probably the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbrathe fifth oldest in the world.
The Portugal dos Pequenitos park is an educational theme park built during the Estado Novo. Its buildings are scale copies of Portuguese architectural landmarks and were completed in the s. Also noteworthy is the Paul de Arzilaa natural reserve occupying an area in Coimbra municipality in Arzilaand in the neighbouring municipalities of Condeixa-a-Nova and Montemor-o-Velho. Not far away from the urban center, close to the city itself, and fully set in the municipality of Coimbra, there are plenty of mountain and river landscapes.
These include the river beach of Palheiros do Zorro in the parish of Torres do Mondego. Coimbra is twinned with: Coimbra also has one of the largest multisports clubs in Portugal: