Birth controlalso known as contraception and fertility controlis a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females, intrauterine devices IUDsand implantable birth control.
In teenagerspregnancies are at greater risk of poor outcomes. Birth control methods include barrier methodshormonal birth controlintrauterine devices IUDssterilizationand behavioral methods. They are used before or during sex while emergency contraceptives are effective for up to five days after sex. Effectiveness is generally expressed as the percentage of women who become pregnant using a given method during the first year,  and sometimes as a lifetime failure rate among methods with high effectiveness, such as tubal ligation.
The most effective methods are those that are long acting and do not require ongoing health care visits. While all methods of birth control have some potential adverse effects, the risk is less than that of pregnancy. For individuals with specific health problems, certain forms of birth control ring and birth control band require further investigations, ring and birth control band.
Hormonal contraception is available in a number of different forms, including oral pillsimplants under the skin, injectionspatchesRing and birth control band and a vaginal ring. They are currently ring and birth control band only for women, although hormonal contraceptives for men have been and are being clinically tested. Combined hormonal contraceptives are associated with a slightly increased risk of venous and arterial blood clots.
The effect on sexual desire is varied, with increase or decrease in some but with no effect in most. Progestin-only pills, injections and intrauterine devices are not associated with an sex and allergies risk of blood clots and may be used by women with a history of blood clots in their veins.
Irregular bleeding may occur with progestin-only methods, with some users reporting no periods. Three varieties of birth control pills in calendar oriented packaging. A transdermal contraceptive patch. Barrier contraceptives are devices that attempt to prevent pregnancy by physically preventing sperm from entering the uterus. Globally, condoms are the most common method of birth control. Contraceptive sponges combine a barrier with a spermicide.
An unrolled male latex condom. A diaphragm vaginal-cervical barrierin its case with a quarter U. A contraceptive sponge set inside its open package. They are one form of long-acting reversible contraception which are the most effective types of reversible birth control. Evidence supports effectiveness and safety in adolescents  and those who have and have not previously had children.
Ring and birth control band copper IUDs may increase ring and birth control band bleeding and result in more painful cramps,  hormonal IUDs may reduce menstrual bleeding or stop menstruation altogether.
Surgical sterilization is available in the form of tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men. This decision may cause regret in some men and women. Men who are more likely to regret sterilization are younger, have young or no children, or have an unstable marriage.
Although sterilization is considered a permanent procedure,  it is possible to attempt a tubal reversal to reconnect the fallopian tubes or a ring and birth control band reversal to reconnect the vasa deferentia. In women, the desire for a reversal is often associated with a change in spouse.
Behavioral methods involve regulating the timing or method of intercourse to prevent introduction of sperm into the female reproductive tract, either altogether or when an egg may be present. Fertility awareness methods involve determining the most fertile days of the menstrual cycle and avoiding unprotected intercourse. The withdrawal method also known as coitus interruptus is the practice of ending intercourse "pulling out" before ejaculation.
There is little data regarding the sperm content of pre-ejaculatory fluid. Sexual abstinence may be used as a form of birth control, meaning either not engaging in any type of sexual activity, or specifically not engaging in vaginal intercourse, while engaging in other forms of non-vaginal sex.
Deliberate non-penetrative sex without vaginal sex or deliberate oral sex without vaginal sex are also sometimes considered birth control. Abstinence-only sex education does not reduce teenage pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive methods are medications sometimes misleadingly referred to as "morning-after pills"  or devices used after unprotected sexual intercourse with the hope of preventing pregnancy.
Providing emergency contraceptive pills to women in advance does not affect rates of sexually transmitted infections, condom use, pregnancy rates, or sexual risk-taking behavior. Dual protection is the use of methods that prevent both sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.
If pregnancy is a high concern, using two methods at the same time is reasonable. Birth control also improves child survival in the developing world by lengthening the time between pregnancies. Teenage pregnanciesring and birth control band, especially among younger teens, are at greater risk of adverse outcomes including early birthring and birth control band, low birth weightand death of the infant.
In the developing world, birth control increases economic growth due to there being fewer dependent children and thus more women participating in or increased contribution to the workforce. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle c. In medieval Europe, any effort to halt pregnancy was deemed immoral by the Catholic Church although it is believed that women of the time still used a number of birth control measures, such as coitus interruptus and inserting lily root and rue into the vagina.
The birth control movement developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries. At the time, under the Comstock Lawdistribution of birth control information was illegal. She jumped bail in after her arrest for distributing birth control information and left the United States for the United Kingdom. She believed women needed to enjoy sex without fearing a pregnancy.
During her time abroad, Sanger also saw a more flexible diaphragm in a Dutch clinic, which she thought was a better form of contraceptive. It was shut down after eleven days and resulted in her arrest.
Slee, would also later become involved in the movement, acting as its main funder. The first permanent birth-control clinic was established in Britain in by Marie Stopes working with the Malthusian League.
Her clinic made contraception acceptable during the s by presenting it in scientific terms. In April the Birth Control Conference assembled delegates and was successful in bringing birth control and abortion into the political sphere — three months later, the Ministry of Healthin the United Kingdom, allowed local authorities to give birth-control advice in welfare centres. In the U. A national survey in showed 71 percent of the adult population supported the use of contraception.
By birth control clinics were running in the United States despite their advertisement still being illegal. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt publicly supported birth control and family planning. Johnson started endorsing public funding for family planning services, and the Federal Government began subsidizing birth control services for low-income families.
These include barrier methods, hormonal methods, implanted devices, emergency contraceptives, and sterilization procedures. Human rights agreements require most governments to provide family planning and contraceptive information and services.
These include the requirement to create a national plan for family planning services, remove laws that limit access to family planning, ensure that a wide variety of safe and effective birth control methods are available including emergency contraceptives, make sure there are appropriately trained healthcare providers and facilities at an affordable price, and create a process to review the programs implemented, ring and birth control band.
If governments fail to do the above it may put them in breach of binding international treaty obligations. Connecticut overturned a state law prohibiting dissemination of contraception information based on a constitutional right to privacy for marital relationships. InEisenstadt v. Baird extended this right to privacy to single people. Additionally, they aim to eradicate discrimination against girls and young women who seek contraceptives.
Since at least the s, Ring and birth control band religious, medical, legislative, and legal commentators have debated contraception laws. Ana Garner and Angela Michel have found that in these discussions men often attach reproductive rights to moral and political matters, as part of an ongoing attempt to regulate human bodies. In press coverage between — they found a divide between institutional ideology and real-life experiences of women.
Religions vary widely in their views of the ethics of birth control, ring and birth control band. September 26 is World Contraception Day, devoted to raising awareness and improving education about sexual and reproductive health, with a vision of a world where every pregnancy is wanted.
There are a number of common misconceptions regarding sex and pregnancy. Improvements of existing birth control methods are needed, as around half of those who get pregnant unintentionally are using birth control at the time. A number of methods to perform sterilization via the cervix are being studied. One involves putting quinacrine in the uterus which causes scarring and infertility. While the procedure is inexpensive and does not ring and birth control band surgical skills, ring and birth control band, there ring and birth control band concerns regarding long-term side effects.
Methods of male birth control include condoms, vasectomies and withdrawal. A reversible surgical method under investigation is reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance RISUG which consists of injecting a polymer gel, styrene maleic anhydride in dimethyl sulfoxideinto the vas deferens. An injection with sodium bicarbonate washes out the substance and restores fertility. Another is an intravas device which involves putting a urethane plug into the vas deferens to block it.
A combination of an androgen and a progestin seems promising, as do selective androgen receptor modulators, ring and birth control band. Neutering or spaying, which involves removing some of the reproductive organs, is often carried out as a method of birth control in household pets. Many animal shelters require these procedures as part of adoption agreements.
Birth control is also being considered as an alternative to hunting as a means of controlling overpopulation in wild animals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Birth control disambiguation. A package of birth control pills. Comparison of birth control methods. A NuvaRing vaginal ring.
A rolled up male condom. A polyurethane female condom. Family economics and Cost of raising a child. Prevalence of birth control. History of birth control. Timeline of reproductive rights legislation.