Testicular cancer or cancer of the testis occurs when cancer cells form in one or both testicles. These cells begin to change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass or tumor, testicular cancer and hcg.
The cells can also invade the blood stream and lymph system and spread, leading to tumors in other areas of the body called metastases. Most often testicular cancer is detected as a painless lump in one of the testicles. Testicular cancer is highly treatable and one of the most curable forms of cancer. That is why self-exams, starting in the adolescent years, are key in early detection of testicular cancer.
Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men years old. Each year, approximately men will be diagnosed with testicular cancer and approximately men will die from the disease. Testicular testicular cancer and hcg strikes approximately six intesticular cancer and hcg, men per year and one inmen per year will die from the disease. To better understand these numbers, 1 in men will veteranarian and antibiotics and dose diagnosed with testicular cancer at some point in their lifetime and 1 in will die from testicular cancer.
There are currently more thanmen in the U. Prompt treatment will lead to the best outcomes. Most testicular cancers are found by men themselves or their partner, not by their doctor.
If you notice anything unusual with your testicles you should notify your doctor immediately. The main symptom of testicular cancer is usually a lump, hardness or painless swelling of the testicle. Common signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include: Painless lump or swelling of the testicle A change in how the testicle feels A dull ache in the groin or lower abdomen A build-up of fluid in the scrotum Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum A scrotum that feels heavy or swollen Bigger or more tender breasts.
Testicular cancer is generally found in young men. The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown and many men without risk factors develop testicular cancer. Strong connections between certain lifestyles, habits or activities, such as bike riding, have not been made with testicular cancer. Injuries and strains will not increase the risk of developing testicular cancer.
Young men between the ages of are at the highest risk for testicular cancer. However, it can occur in men of any age. Testicular cancer is 4. The risk for Hispanics, American Indians and Asians falls between that of white and black men. Normally, after birth, the testicles descend from inside the abdomen down into the scrotum.
In some men one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. Men with a history of a structural of diltiazem and verapamil testicle are 3 to 17 times more likely to develop testicular cancer than men whose testicles descended normally. Surgery to correct the non-descended testicle orchiopexy may not reduce the risk of testicular cancer but may allow for better observation of the testicle for abnormalities, testicular cancer and hcg.
Abnormal development of a gonad testicle which is usually part of a genetic syndrome increases the risk of testicular cancer. A genetic syndrome where males are born with an extra X chromosome increases the risk of testicular cancer.
Personal or family history of testicular cancer: Carcinoma in testicular cancer and hcg CIS also called intratubular germ cell neoplasia: The presence of carcinoma in situ in the testicle increases the risk for testicular cancer. The removal of one testicle does not affect the sperm producing capabilities of the remaining testicle. However, radiation therapy and chemotherapy can lower sperm counts temporarily or permanently.
All men who are going to receive radiation therapy or chemotherapy should discuss fertility issues with their doctor. Sperm banking, where sperm samples are frozen for long-term storage is possible and samples should be submitted before the start of radiation or chemotherapy treatments. At a later stage the sperm can be thawed and used in fertility treatments.
In order to diagnose testicular cancer a physician will need a full medical history and a physical examination. If a lump or abnormality is detected the doctor will order an ultrasound of the scrotum. If the ultrasound indicates that there is a solid tumor within the testicle testicular cancer and hcg surgery will be required to remove the testicle and test the tumor to see if it is cancerous. Unfortunately, biopsies are not recommended for testicular cancer as the biopsy itself can increase the chances of the cancer spreading to other areas of the body.
If the tumor is determined to be cancerous then other tests will be ordered such as a chest x-ray, CT scan and blood work in order to determine how advanced the cancer is and if it has spread. Your physician will examine your testicles by gently rolling them between two fingers and thumb to identify any abnormal lumps. Your physician may also check your groin area, abdomen, armpits and neck to look for swollen lymph nodes. The doctor may also exam you for breast tenderness or enlargement and listen to your lungs, testicular cancer and hcg.
The scrotal ultrasound is a painless non-invasive procedure in which high frequency sound waves are used to produce images of inside the scrotum and testicles. It is the same technology that is used in pregnant women when they get a sonogram. The images will show if there are any solid masses, swelling or fluid collections within the scrotum.
The procedure of taking a biopsy from outside the scrotum and into the testicle. Transscrotal Biopsy is to be condemned and should not be performed. The lymph system testicular cancer and hcg the testicles drain into the abdomen while the lymph system of the scrotum drains into the lower legs.
By doing a biopsy through the scrotum, cancerous cells can be left in the scrotum and the lymph drainage can be altered.
This means that any cancer can spread in a way that is not as predictable as normal testicular cancer spread. Orchiectomy means removal of one or both of the testicles.
Radical means that the removal is done by making an incision high up in the groin area. The incision is not made on the scrotum itself. The reason the testicle is removed from higher up is so that there are no changes made to the lymph drainage system.
The reason is similar to why the transscrotal biopsy is condemned. Contrary to rumors the removal of a testicle does not affect the ability to achieve an erection and seldom interferes with the ability to father children. Once the testicle is removed a biopsy or a small sample of the tumor is sent to the laboratory to determine if the cells are cancerous malignant or non-cancerous benign.
There are options for inserting a prosthetic implant or fake testicle after surgery. For cosmetic or psychological reasons some men may opt to have a testicular implant to give the testicular cancer and hcg of a normal scrotum. The implants serve no physiological function. The decision is up to the individual and can be discussed with your surgeon. Many men wait until after treatments to take this option into full consideration and some men do not like the prosthesis after it is implanted and end up having it removed.
A front and side chest x-ray are done to see if the cancer has spread to the lungs or chest cavity. CT-scan is short for Computed Tomography. CT-Scans create three-dimensional pictures of the inside of the body with an x-ray machine, testicular cancer and hcg.
They usually require testicular cancer and hcg to drink a dye and also have a contrast dye injected into you veins in order to see the internal structures better, testicular cancer and hcg. CT-scans are the most common imaging tests used for testicular cancer. CT-scans are the preferred imaging test for testicular cancer patients, testicular cancer and hcg. If your doctor orders one of the tests you should discuss with him why the test is needed.
Blood Tests or Tumor Markers: Testicular cancer or germ cell tumors can secrete proteins or hormones into the bloodstream. These tumor markers include: Not all forms of testicular cancer produce tumor markers or elevate their levels and you can have testicular cancer even if your tumor markers are normal.
AFP may be produced by pure embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor or combined tumors. It is not secreted by pure seminoma or choriocarcinoma. If a diagnosis of seminoma is made but the APF is elevated then the pathology specimen should be reviewed again. Beta-hCG is the same substance that helps identify if women are pregnant.
However, some testicular cancers can also secrete the substance. These tumors include embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma. LDH is the least specific tumor marker for testicular cancer. The levels may be elevated testicular cancer and hcg reasons other than testicular cancer. However, monitoring the LDH levels can give testicular cancer and hcg physician more information about your cancer and treatment.
The cells that produce sperm are called germ cells. The testicular cancer and hcg cell tumors are further classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas, testicular cancer and hcg. There are other types of cancer that can develop in the testicles but they are very rare and will only be discussed briefly. Sixty percent of germ cell tumors are seminomas and the others are nonseminomas.
Each testicular cancer and hcg these two types of germ cell tumors behave differently. Seminomas tend to spread slower while non-seminomas tend to spread and metastasize more quickly.
To be considered a seminoma the tumor must only contain seminoma. If the tumor contains both seminoma and nonseminoma cell types then the tumor should be considered as a nonseminoma. There is also testicular cancer and hcg precancerous condition called carcinoma in situ, testicular cancer and hcg. Carcinoma in situ or intratubular germ cell neoplasia is like a precancerous cell form and may not always progress into cancer. There is still much debate about the treatment for carcinoma in situ.
Seminomas are classified as either: