Acetone propanone is the organic compound with the formula CH 3 2 CO. Tetracyclines and mrsa animal is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in laboratories. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active what is dka and diabetes in nail polish removerand as paint thinner.
Acetone is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine, tetracyclines and mrsa animal. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts. Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems.
Acetone was first produced by alchemists during the late Middle Ages via the dry distillation of metal acetates tetracyclines and mrsa animal. Small amounts of acetone are produced in the body by the decarboxylation of ketone bodies. Certain dietary patterns, including prolonged fasting and high-fat low-carbohydrate dieting, can produce ketosistetracyclines and mrsa animal, in which acetone is formed in body tissue. Certain health conditions, such as alcoholism and diabetes, can produce ketoacidosisuncontrollable ketosis that leads to a sharp, and potentially fatal, tetracyclines and mrsa animal, increase in the acidity of the blood.
Since it is a vitamin d levels and hair loss of fermentation, acetone is a byproduct of the distillery industry. Although some biochemistry textbooks and current research publications  indicate that acetone cannot be metabolized, there is evidence to the contrary, some dating back thirty years. Inthe worldwide production capacity for acetone was estimated at 6.
Acetone is produced directly or indirectly from propylene. In the tetracyclines and mrsa animal process, benzene is alkylated with propylene to produce cumenewhich is oxidized by air to produce phenol and acetone:. Other processes involve the direct oxidation of propylene Wacker-Hoechst processor the hydration of propylene to give 2-propanolwhich is oxidized tetracyclines and mrsa animal acetone. Previously, acetone was produced by the dry distillation of acetatesfor example calcium acetate in ketonic decarboxylation.
After that time, during World War Iacetone was produced using acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum bacteriawhich was developed by Chaim Weizmann later the first president of Israel in order to help the British war effort,  in the preparation of Cordite. Acetone is a good solvent for many plastics and some synthetic fibers.
It is used for thinning polyester resin, cleaning tools used with it, tetracyclines and mrsa animal, and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before they harden.
It is used as one of the volatile components of some paints and varnishes. As a heavy-duty degreaser, it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting. It is also useful for high reliability soldering applications to remove rosin flux after soldering tetracyclines and mrsa animal complete; this helps to prevent tetracyclines and mrsa animal rusty bolt effect.
Acetone is used as a solvent by the pharmaceutical industry and as a denaturant in denatured alcohol. Although itself flammableacetone is used extensively as a solvent for the safe transportation and storage of acetylenewhich cannot be safely pressurized as a pure compound. Vessels tetracyclines and mrsa animal a porous material are first filled with acetone followed by acetylene, which dissolves into the acetone. One liter of acetone can dissolve around liters of acetylene at a pressure of 10 bar.
Acetone is used to synthesize methyl methacrylate. It begins with the initial conversion of acetone to acetone cyanohydrin:. In a subsequent step, the nitrile is hydrolyzed to the unsaturated amidewhich is esterified:. Bisphenol A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonatespolyurethanesand epoxy resins.
The synthesis involves the condensation of acetone with phenol:. Many millions of kilograms of acetone are consumed in the production of the solvents methyl isobutyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone.
These products arise via an initial aldol condensation to give diacetone alcohol. Condensation with acetylene gives 2-methylbutynolprecursor to synthetic terpenes and terpenoids. In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polaraprotic solvent in a variety of organic reactionssuch as S N 2 reactions.
The use of acetone solvent is critical for the Jones oxidation. It does not form an azeotrope with water see azeotrope data. Despite its common use as a supposed drying agentit is not effective except by bulk displacement and dilution. Acetone is fluorescent under ultraviolet light, and its vapor can be used as a fluorescent tracer in fluid flow experiments. Acetone is used to precipitate proteins.
Acetone is used in a variety of general medical and cosmetic applications and is also listed as a component in food additives and food packaging and also in nail polish remover. Dermatologists use acetone with alcohol for acne treatments to peel dry skin. Acetone is commonly used in chemical peeling. Prior to chemexfoliation, the skin is cleaned and excess fat removed in a process called defatting. Acetone, Septisolor a combination of these agents is commonly used in this process.
Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover. Acetone is a component of superglue remover and easily removes residues from glass and porcelain. Make-up artists use acetone to remove skin adhesive from the netting of wigs and mustaches by immersing the item in an acetone bath, then removing the softened glue residue with a stiff brush. Acetone is often used for vapor polishing of printing artifacts on 3D-printed models printed with ABS plastic.
The technique, called acetone vapor bath smoothing, involves placing the printed part in a sealed chamber containing a small amount of acetone, and heating to around 80 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes. This creates a vapor of acetone in the container. The acetone condenses evenly all over the part, causing the surface to soften and liquefy. Surface tension then smooths the semi-liquid plastic. When the part is removed from the chamber, the acetone component evaporates leaving a glassy-smooth part free of striation, patterning, and visible layer edges, common features in untreated 3D printed parts.
Low-grade acetone is also commonly used in academic laboratory settings as a glassware rinsing agent for removing residue and solids before a final wash.
The most hazardous property of acetone is its extreme flammability. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back. Static discharge may also ignite acetone vapors, though acetone has a very high ignition initiation energy point and therefore accidental ignition is rare. Even pouring or spraying acetone over red-glowing coal will not ignite it, due to the high concentration of vapour and the cooling effect of evaporation of the liquid.
Also, industrial acetone is likely to contain a small amount tetracyclines and mrsa animal water which also inhibits ignition.
When oxidized, acetone forms acetone peroxide tetracyclines and mrsa animal a byproduct, which is a highly unstableprimary high explosive compound. It may be formed accidentally, e. Due to its instability, it is rarely used, despite its simple chemical synthesis. Acetone can be found as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products ranging from cosmetics to processed and unprocessed foods.
Acetone has been shown to have anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsyin the absence of toxicity, when administered in millimolar concentrations. This indicates that children are not uniquely susceptible to zoloft and trazodone exposure. External exposures are small compared to the exposures associated with the ketogenic diet. Acetone is believed to exhibit only slight toxicity in normal use, and there is no strong evidence of chronic health effects if basic precautions are followed.
Acetone is an irritant causing mild skin irritation and moderate to severe eye irritation. At high vapor concentrations, it may depress the central nervous system like many other solvents. Although acetone occurs naturally in the environment in plants, trees, volcanic gases, forest fires, and as a product of the breakdown of body fat,  the majority of the acetone released into the environment is of industrial origin.
Acetone evaporates rapidly, even from water and soil. Once in the atmosphere, it has a day half-life and is degraded by UV light via photolysis primarily into methane and ethane. Acetone may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic systems due to the microbial consumption. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Acetoin. Refractive index n D. Std molar entropy S o LD 50 median dose. LC 50 median concentration, tetracyclines and mrsa animal.
LC Lo lowest published, tetracyclines and mrsa animal. Butanone Isopropyl alcohol Urea Carbonic acid Carbonyl fluoride. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Synapse Information Resources, Inc. The Most Important Chemical Compounds: Archived from the original on Transactions of the Faraday Society. Ann NY Acad Sci.
Retrieved 2 September Organic chemistry principles and industrial practice 1. Tetracyclines and mrsa animal Toxicity and Safety. Journal of Proteome Research. Retrieved July 7, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Journal of Physical Chemistry.
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