Supplements are a form of ergogenic aid taken because they are believed to improve or increase performance. There is a drive for athletes to have every competitive advantage possible. There are not many pros for many of the supplements, so I have broken this article down into the Facts and the Risks of using each of the following supplements:, vitamin e pros and cons.
Chronic use may lead to the following problems3: Diabetes Carpal tunnel compression Muscle disease Shortened life span Banned substance May actually result in a decrease in performance5, vitamin e pros and cons.
Not prohibited in most sports No known harmful side effects 6 — yet Studies have found a positive effect on strength, vitamin e pros and cons, power and lean body mass 1 Particular effects have been seen with repeated short efforts and little recovery time 1,6,7 Gains in body mass could be due to water retention.
Studies have been of short duration with small sample sizes Effects of long-term usage unknown Anecdotal reports of muscle cramps probably unrelated to creatine and stomach problems Concerns about effect on kidney function. Studies involving humans have been vitamin e pros and cons The safety and efficacy of amino acid use has not been established.
The daily protein requirement may be increased in athletes undergoing hard training It is possible to achieve increased protein intake through diet Some protein vitamin e pros and cons foods may also be fat dense Protein supplementation may help if the athlete is concerned about excess fat in high protein foods.
It appears to play a role in sparing glycogen by increasing FFAs and increasing fat oxidation1 Exercise time to exhaustion was increased in a group given caffeine over a placebo group1 Under simulated race conditions performance also improved 1 There is no apparent effect on maximal oxygen uptake 1 Use of 3 mg or less may be all that is needed to achieve the benefits of caffeine 1 Possible benefits in performance as short vitamin e pros and cons 1 minute 1.
Some people reported the following side effects 1: Insomnia Headaches Gastrointestinal problems and bleeding Diuresis Some concern that high intake may put one at risk of bladder cancer 1 Very high doses have caused muscle tremors and impaired coordination in athletes 1 Caffeine urine content above a certain level is prohibited by certain organizations like the NCAA.
There has been no reported evidence that they are beneficial to performance They can also function as pro-oxidants Athletes who train regularly may have a natural capacity to neutralize free radicals and prevent oxidative damage 1 Recent reports have linked vitamin E to possible heart problems.
Certain ones may improve performance in certain cases Psychological advantage may be gained. Expensive Most illegal — either by law or stated by international sports governing bodies Many harmful to health There are still unknown health risks Most probably do not help at all Research is limited — few human studies; small sample sizes; short in duration They are frequently taken by athletes in quantities that are larger than recommended, vitamin e pros and cons.
Journal of Athletic Training, 37, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Retrieved March 17, from http: Claims for the anabolic effects of growth retin a and wrinkle British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, Retrieved March 20, from ProQuest database.
Creatine supplementation and health variables: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Journal American College of Sports Medicine roundtable. The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Pros and Cons of Supplementation and Ergogenic Aids.