Bupropionsold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. Common side effects include dry mouth, trouble sleeping, agitation, and headaches. Bupropion is known to affect several different biological targets. It was first approved for medical use in the United States in It was originally called by the generic name amfebutamone, before being renamed in Bupropion is one of the most widely prescribed antidepressants, and the available evidence indicates that it is effective in clinical depression.
Bupropion was approved by the U. Bupropion has several features that distinguish it from other antidepressants: The addition to a prescribed SSRI is a common strategy when people do not respond to the SSRI, even though this is not an officially approved indication.
The next most common use is as an aid for smoking cessation. A typical bupropion treatment course lasts up to twelve weeks, with people halting the use of tobacco about ten days into the course. Bupropion increases the likelihood of quitting smoking by approximately 1. Animal studies indicate that administration of bupropion at less than the recommended therapeutic dose may actually enhance the rewarding properties of nicotine, i.
In Australia and the UK smoking cessation is the only licensed use of bupropion. Bupropion has been used as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD since at least with reports of positive results in both minors and adults. Its effect may also be "considerably less than of the approved agents Thus it may be prudent for the clinician to recommend a trial of behavior therapy at this point, before moving to these second-line agents.
Bupropion is one of few antidepressants that does not cause sexual dysfunction. Food and Drug Administration. There have also been a few studies suggesting that bupropion can improve sexual function in women who are not depressed, if they have hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD. Bupropion, when used for treating obesity over a period of 6 to 12 months, may result in weight loss of 2. Several other uses have been researched for bupropion.
There has been controversy about whether it is useful to add an antidepressant such as bupropion to a mood stabilizer in people with bipolar depressionbut recent reviews have concluded that bupropion in this situation does no significant harm and may sometimes give significant benefit. It should be avoided in individuals who are also taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs. When switching from MAOIs to bupropion, it is important to include a washout period of about two weeks between the medications.
Epileptic seizures are the most important adverse effect of bupropion. A high incidence of seizures was responsible for the temporary withdrawal wellbutrin xl and prozac the drug from the market between and The risk of seizure is strongly dose-dependent, but also dependent on the preparation.
The sustained-release preparation is associated with a seizure incidence of 0. The prescribing information notes that hypertensionsometimes severe, was observed wellbutrin xl and prozac some people taking bupropion, both with and without pre-existing hypertension.
Approximatelypeople were treated with bupropion for smoking cessation during that period. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are rare in clinical trials, and the FDA requires all antidepressants, including bupropion, to carry a boxed warning stating that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicide in persons younger than This warning is based on a statistical analysis conducted by the FDA which found a 2-fold increase in suicidal thought and behavior in children and adolescents, and 1.
Considered in isolation, bupropion was not statistically different from placebo. Suicidal behavior is less of a concern when bupropion is prescribed for smoking cessation. According to a Cochrane reviewwellbutrin xl and prozac, while there is an association with suicide it is unclear if bupropion was the cause, wellbutrin xl and prozac.
In the FDA issued a health advisory warning that the prescription of bupropion for smoking cessation has been associated with reports about unusual behavior changes, agitation and hostility. Some people, according to the advisory, have become depressed or have had their depression worsen, wellbutrin xl and prozac, have had thoughts about suicide or dying, or have attempted suicide.
Bupropion-induced psychosis may develop in select populations, or worsen a pre-existing psychotic syndrome. In most cases these symptoms can be reduced or eliminated by reducing the dose, ceasing treatment or adding antipsychotic medication, wellbutrin xl and prozac. In a large-scale study of programs where bupropion was used for smoking cessation or treatment of depression, no withdrawal symptoms were observed.
Bupropion is considered moderately dangerous in overdose. When bupropion was one of several kinds of pills taken in an overdose, fever, muscle rigidity, muscle damage, hypertension or hypotension, stupor, coma, and respiratory failure have been reported. While most people recover, some people have died, wellbutrin xl and prozac, and before they died suffered multiple uncontrolled seizures wellbutrin xl and prozac heart attacks.
In the majority of childhood exploratory ingestions involving one or two tablets, children show no apparent symptoms. The expected result is wellbutrin xl and prozac increase of bupropion and decrease of hydroxybupropion blood concentration. Bupropion lowers the threshold for epileptic seizures and therefore can potentially interact with other medications that also lower it, such as carbapenemscholinergic agents, fluoroquinolonesinterferonschloroquinemefloquinelindanetheophyllinesystemic corticosteroids e.
Caution should be observed when combining bupropion with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor MAOIas it may result in hypertensive crisis. Bupropion is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor NDRI.
Bupropion inhibits the reuptake of dopamine through the human dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter ;    the inhibition of dopamine reuptake through the norepinephrine transporter is most pronounced in the prefrontal cortex of humans. R,R -hydroxybupropion, S,S -hydroxybupropion, wellbutrin xl and prozac, threo -hydrobupropion and erythro -hydrobupropion, which are further metabolized to inactive metabolites and eliminated through excretion into the urine.
Both bupropion and its primary metabolite hydroxybupropion act in the liver as potent inhibitors of the enzyme CYP2D6which metabolizes not only bupropion itself but also a variety of other drugs and biologically active substances. The biological activity annual flower bed plan bupropion can be attributed to a significant degree to its active wellbutrin xl and prozac, in particular to S,S -hydroxybupropion.
Alcohol causes an increase of CYP2B6 in the liver, and persons with a history of alcohol use metabolize bupropion faster. Bupropion is metabolized to threo-hydrobupropion via cortisone reductase. The metabolism of bupropion is highly variable: There have been reported cases of false-positive urine amphetamine tests in persons taking bupropion. Inthree new major metabolites of bupropion, all formed exclusively by CYP2C19were identified.
Bupropion is a unicyclic aminoketone that belongs to the class of substituted cathinones and the more general class of substituted phenethylamines. Subsequently, the risk of seizures was found to be highly dose-dependent, and bupropion was re-introduced to the market in with a lower maximum recommended daily dose.
Inthe FDA approved a sustained-release formulation of bupropion slcohol and high cholesterol Wellbutrin SR, intended to be taken twice a day as compared with three times a day for immediate-release Wellbutrin.
In Canada, generic XR bupropion is distributed by Mylan. Prozac and hypertensionbupropion was approved by the FDA for use as a smoking cessation aid wellbutrin xl and prozac the name Zyban. Bupropion was granted a licence for use in adults with major depression in the Netherlands in earlywith GlaxoSmithKline expecting subsequent approval in other European countries.
Wellbutrin xl and prozac 11 Octobertwo providers of consumer information on nutritional products and supplements, ConsumerLab.
The FDA also said that coincidental natural mood variation is the most likely explanation for the apparent worsening of wellbutrin xl and prozac after the switch from Wellbutrin XL to Budeprion XL. In Aprilthe FDA approved a formulation of bupropion as a hydrobromide salt instead of a hydrochloride salt, to be sold under the name Aplenzin by Sanofi-Aventis.
Inthe U. Amfebutamone was the former INN. According to the US government classification of psychiatric medications, bupropion is "non-abusable". It is sold under many trade names worldwide and in combinations with naltrexone. It is sold as a combination drug with naltrexone as Contrave. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Buprenorphine, wellbutrin xl and prozac. C Risk not ruled out.
S4 Prescription only CA: This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. List of side effects of bupropion, wellbutrin xl and prozac. Retrieved wellbutrin xl and prozac July Retrieved wellbutrin xl and prozac October Ascent Pharma Pty Ltd. See that site for updates.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 15 July National Institute of Health. Retrieved 18 July The Complete Drug Reference. Case Studies in Medical Toxicology: From the American College of Medical Toxicology. Inthe INN was reassigned as bupropion.
See World Health Organization Archived from the original PDF on 1 February Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 23 March A Bayesian meta-analysis of Food and Drug Administration reviews". Journal of Affective Disorders. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology.